Originally By Tony Ackland
GinThe exact types and amounts of botanticals used in gins are usually a closely guarded secret. However, by law, gin must contain juniper berries. Juniper berries & coriander seed typically constitute 90% of the total botanicals used. Typical botanicals used include :
Wal writes ...
John V has built a small basket that sits in the top of his distillation column to hold the berries and herbs ...
Three aspects made it possible.
1) My reflux column is of the 2" diam. variety. Thus there is ample space for a packet of herbs & spices.
2) the column is packed with large s.s.scrubbers. By removing the top one, I can simply set my herb packet in its place.
3) The head of the column is not soldered onto the column, and is easily removed, exposing the top of the column.
The packet itself is made out of a square of plastic (?) window screen (8"x8"). I first tested its resistance to ethanol, by boiling it in ethanol. Whatever it is made of, it is indestructable. I simply rolled it into a tube about 1 1/2"diam, and folded over and stapled the bottom end. Also a couple of staples along the seam and at the top.
Spices and herbs are measured out, and poured into the packet. Drop the whole works into the top of the reflux column, and replace the column head. The pouch is located just below the T formed by the column and the short horizontal lyne arm. In the pictures below, the botanicals probably sit at the level of the white Teflon tape.
Gin botanicals for 20L turbo-sugar wash/ Reflux column
Method: I put the whole amount into the small pouch, which seems to be enough for one distillation run of approx. 20L of Turbo-sugarwash. This seems a very small amount, but it gives me enough taste. Be cautious with adding anymore - the juniper berries can be VERY dominant. Also, keep the cassia/cinnamon to a min. It can really give a burning sensation. What I have here is about right for me. The lemon and lime rinds are actually v. thin peels, not including the white fibrous stuff on their underside. Anis and fennel are approximately the same in taste. I did not crush any of these - simply put them into the pouch whole. When wiith Turbo-sugar wash, I put the botanicals into the column with the first (and only) distillation. As the ethanol is coming off at 94-96%abv I see no reason to run it through separately to get the botanicals in.
You can either do it this method yourself, or it is easier just to make a simple gin essence, and add this to some 40% neutral alcohol.
I use a small essence still to make gin essence in. It is a 1L glass coffee pot, with a large cork in the top, through which a condensor sits. Total cost < NZ$20. I gently crush up approx 50g of juniper berries, and a couple of coriander and fennel seeds, and soak these in alcohol of 75-95% strength, for a week or so. Sometimes add a wee strip of orange peel too. I put this into the potstill, and add a little water too. I distill off the essence, up to about 90C, or when the flavours stop. This essence is then added to neutral vodka at 40% - each litre only needing around 10 mL of essence to get the right flavour.
If your gin goes cloudy, it means that you have too much oil present for the % alcohol - either up the % alcohol until it dissolves again, use less oil, or just drink it cloudy.
Jack writes ...
Mikrobios describes his technique ...
This method is very well known, and may be the best for essence distillations where one is starting with good spirit and where methanol/fusels are not a problem. I place two vessels in the pan: the collecting vessel is thus insulated against the heat of the boiling tincture and at the same time is kept below its own boiling point by the drops of distillate. When the cooling water is hand-warm (trial and error) I turn the gas off. About 100mLs of clear distillate is obtained; I bring this to 150 mL with cold filtered water. It immediately becomes opalescent. About 4 mLs of this will flavour a litre of 40% spirit to make a clear and flavourful gin. Calibrating a batch is a delightful way to spend an evening.
As a alternative method, UPS writes ...
I use juniper berries by simmering them in 50% vodka for ten minutes (with the lid on), then letting it cool overnight on it's own. The next day I filter this mess through a couple of coffee filters to get a homemade (and better quality) gin essence. I use about 35 grams of juniper berries (crushed) and 350ml of vodka - 5ml (one teaspoon) will turn a bottle of vodka into a light flavored gin. 10ml make a more traditional, strong flavored gin. You can add other spices like cardamom, coriander, and lemon peel (about one gram of each) for a more complex flavor in your gin. Using 10ml makes a straw yellow colored drink.
The juniper you want is juniperus communis, the berries are green at first but if left on the bush for a year turn blue/black & have that wonderful juniper smell when crushed. Juniper is fairly slow growing so you're probably better off going to a health food shop, herbalist or good cook shop for supplies - the berries are great for use in cooking & pickling. However if you're ever in Scotland talk to me 'cos I know where they grow wild !!
Another source might be aromatherapy juniper oil, it'll be very concentrated but it's supposed to be a pure extract. Don't know if anyone else in the group has had experience of using juniper in this form.
For more on juniper (Juniperus communis), see http://wiscinfo.doit.wisc.edu/moved/herbarium.htm
From http://www.ddgi.es/ ...
Plant that grows in the upper mountain areas of Catalonia, normally between 500 and 1,600 m. Although it can develop into a small tree of up to 7 m, it is usually found in bush form, less than 2 m in height. Its more characteristic features are its needle-like leaves, with a white band on the upper face, encircling the stem in groups of three. The fruit matures in the autumn after a two-year period on the plant. This fruit is pea-sized, round, purplish-blue in colour and surrounded by an aromatic pulp.
He says the basic compounding includes crushing the botanicals used, a week of steeping in neutral spirit, and a week of resting. Followed by filtering, dilution, and bottling. It is clear that the filtering is for particulate matter since neutral spirit is used up front.
re: botanical amounts, he gives a complete listing of the common to the more obscure (rosemary, savory, etc.) botanicals used. Here's his section on a basic gin botanical ratio:
Well that's good news ;-) He doesn't mention the method used for the above "recipe" but it would appear to be a cold compounding method.
notes on botanicals: North American cinnamon of commerce is actually the bark of the cassia tree. True cinnamon is not as easily obtained but it would seem his basic gin is using the cassia bark. Cardamom in this case would be cardamom seeds themselves and not the whole pods. Remember to remove as much pith (the white part) from the lemon peel; it is bitter.
The Household Cyclopedia (1881) gives a Dutch and an English recipe: "To Prepare Gin as in Holland" using a proof spirit distilled from a rye, barley malt mash. Scaled down and converted to metric it consists of macerating 17.5g of juniper berries and 0.75ml (15drops) of juniper oil in 1 litre of proof spirit and redistilling. "English Genever" is made by macerating 35g of juniper berries in 1 litre of proof spirit with added water and redistilling.
Some distillers have the alcohol vapor pass through the botanicals (in a gin head), others macerate together and redistill while others distill various botanicals separately, and then blend, because different oils have different boiling points. I suspect some modern gins add essential oils to a neutral spirit instead of redistilling with botanicals.
Dutch gin (genever) is based on a heavier spirit made from a mash of wheat, rye and malted barley distilled in pot stills.It is often stated wrongly that genever uses only juniper. Other botanicals are used. It's the method used which gives genever its distinctive style. Bols, passes the vapor in a 4th distillation over the juniper berries. Triple distillation is common, and juniper is normally introduced in the second distillation, with the other botanicals being added to the 3rd (or sometimes 4th) distillation. Notaris redistills with juniper, while a 3rd blending component is distilled with other botanicals separately. The end result of combining a richer spirit and a higher percentage of juniper is a spirit which is more powerfully textured than London gin.
Old genevers were straw-colored and pungently sweet. Early English gin was also a juniper-laden drink flavored with glycerine and sugar syrup (Old Tom). Plymouth gin claims to be the first distillery to produce a dry, crystal-clear gin in the late 18th century. Gin was a perfect medium for bitters (to prevent stomach problems), lime juice (to prevent scurvy), and Schweppe's Tonic Water cotaining quinine (to prevent malaria).
There are 2 main ways to make gin: redistilling a neutral spirit which has had botanicals added to it (Distilled Gin); or adding essential oils (cold compounding). Distilled Gin (on label) is superior.
The pot stills used have high necks for more reflux than the usual whisky stills.
All distilleries have their secret rcipe of botanicals and how they put them in varies. Some put the botanicals in for only a short time before redistilling, others steep them for 24 hours before distilling, others pass vapor through a basket holding the botanicals. Not all botanical aromas appear at the same time. After a quick foreshots run, the volatile citrus notes appear, then come juniper and coriander, then the roots such as orris, angelica and liquorice. The length of the run is important. The alcohol concentration of the final product is also important as citric notes are the most volatile, and should be greater than 40%abv. Some duty-free gins are 50%abv.
All brands use juniper and coriander, but Gordons uses ginger, cassia oil and nutmeg. Beefeater uses bitter orange peel as well as angelica root and seed. Plymouth's 7 botanicals include sweet orange peel and cardamon. Sapphire uses the now rarely seen cubeb berries (India) and grains of paradise (Ghana).
For convenience I have scaled down and rounded the quantities for the recipes for Dutch Geneva, Cordial gin and dry London Gins from 'Muspratt Chemistry'. I have assumed that the botanicals will be macerated in 1 litre of 50%abv and then redistilled. 42%abv is the original strength of Plymouth Gin. I have also doubled the quantity for bitter almonds as the original used pressed bitter almond cake and almonds contain about 50% oil. For the cordial gins, double the quantity of botanicals and then dilute to 22% abv. I have omitted the 'West Country Gin' as it contains only 2g of juniper/litre and a total of about 35g/litre of botanicals seems to be an optimal quantity.
Recipe 1 (from 'The Book of Gin & Vodkas', Bob Emmons)
angelica root 2.5g
lemon peel 0.25g
bitter almonds 12g
angelica root 0.25g
liquorice root 1g
bitter almonds 1.5g
orris root 0.25g
angelica root 0.25g
liquorice root 1g
orris root 0.25g
angelica root 0.125g
calamus root 0.25g
grains of paradise 0.5g
angelica root 0.5g
orris root 0.25g
calamus root 0.25g
orange peel 0.25g
liquorice root 10g (optional)
bitter almonds 1g
angelica root 0.25g
liquorice root 1g
angelica root 0.5g
calamus root 0.6g
bitter almonds 1.2g
calamus root 0.25g
bitter almonds 0.5g
orris root 0.25g
FINE GENEVA (highly recommended)
angelica root 1g
calamus root 0.25g
bitter almonds 3g
grains of paradise 1g
Recipe 10 (from 'The Household Encyclopedia')
With the aim of formulating a standard model for gin botanical quantities for the homedistiller, here is a table of the botanicals used in 8 modern gins:
1) Tiger Gin
2) Gordon's Distilled London Dry Gin
3) Beefeater London Distilled Dry Gin
4) Plymouth Gin
5) Bombay Distilled London Dry Gin
6) Bombay Sapphire Distilled London Dry Gin
7) Mercury Gin
8) Juniper Green London Dry Gin
Botanicals used-------Gin Brand (see above) -----------------------1-----2-----3-----4-----5-----6-----7-----8 Juniper---------------yes---yes---yes---yes---yes---yes---yes---yes Coriander-------------yes---yes---yes---yes---yes---yes---yes---yes Angelica root---------yes---------yes---yes---yes---yes---yes---yes Cassia----------------yes---yes---yes---------yes---yes---yes Cinnamon--------------yes------------------------------------------ Liquorice-------------yes---------yes---------yes---yes---yes------ Bitter almonds--------------------------------yes---yes---yes------ Grains of Paradise----------------------------------yes------------ Cubeb berries---------------------------------------yes------------ Bitter orange peel----------------yes------------------------------ Sweet orange peel-----yes---------------yes---------------yes------ Lemon peel------------yes---------yes---yes---yes---yes---yes------ Ginger----------------------yes------------------------------------ Orris root------------yes---------------yes---yes---yes---yes------ Cardamon--------------yes---------------yes------------------------ Nutmeg----------------yes---yes------------------------------------ Savory----------------------------------------------------------yes Calamus (sweet flag)----------------------------------------------- Chamomile (?)------------------------------------------------------
The total amount of botanicals used is about 20-35 grams/litre. If we take the dominant botanical juniper as 'x', the proportions of the botanicals used is:
Some current gins do not have a pronounced juniper character as they are used for cocktails and are more of a flavored vodka - for this type of gin for 'x' use equal quantities for juniper & coriander (i.e. x = 20g composed of 10g of juniper & 10g of coriander)
The botanical are macerated in 45%abv neutral alcohol (usuallyfor 24 hours), redistilled and then diluted to 42%abv which is an optimal strength for holding the flavour of the botanicals. Only the middle run (80-85%abv) is used to produce a high quality gin. Plymouth Gin also comes in a 57%abv 'Navy Strength' and which is also the British 100 proof strength.
All gins include juniper as an ingredient along with other botanicals. Typically a fine gin contains 6-10 botanicals, although the Dutch Damask Gin has 17 and the French Citadelle Gin has 19 but this could be more for marketing reasons and has been criticised for lacking direction.
juniper - juniperus communis
coriander - coriandrum sativum
angelica - archangelica officinalis
cassia - cinnamomum cassia
cinnamon - cinnamomum zeylanicum
liquorice - glycyrrihiza sp.
bitter almond - prunus dulcis, amara
grains of paradise - afromumum melegueta
cubeb berries - piper cubeba
bitter orange - citrus aurantium
sweet orange - citrus sinensis
lemon - citrus limon
ginger - zingiber officinale
orris root - iris florentina
cardamon - elletaria cardamomum
nutmeg - myristica fragrans
savory - satureja hortensis
calamus - acorus calamus
chamomile - matricaria chamomilla
The usual mash for English gin is 75% maize, 15% barley malt and 10% other grains, although rectified spirit from molasses is also used. Dutch gin originally was made from 1/3 malted barley and 2/3 rye meal, although these days the proportions given is 1/3 malted barley, 1/3 rye, 1/3 maize.
The Dutch figure prominently in the history of distilling. With their business acumen, they were quick to make a guilder when the opportunity arose. The first recorded distillation of gin (eau de vie de genievre)is in 1572 by Franciscus Sylvius a physic of Leiden, and it was meant as a health tonic based on juniper berries. Lucas Bols, the father of commercial gin production, built his first distillery in 1575 near Amsterdam. The first recorded commercial liqueur was Lucas Bol's Kummel. It was meant as an aid for digestion i.e. as a digestive. It's based on caraway seeds which are believed to aid digestion and prevent flatulence.
The use of caraway flavored spirits are still common from Holland to Latvia. Caraway has a yield of essential oils from about 3-7%, therefore you would need to macerate about 100 grams of crushed seeds in 40%abv and then to redistill to get a caraway flavored spirit. This would have about a teaspoon (5ml or 100 drops) of caraway essential oil. Using a commercial essential oil is another alternative. Here is a basic recipe for those with a flatulence problem:
You could also make a caraway flavored vodka by maceration:
Pacharan (Patxaran) is a Spanish Basque specialty made by macerating sloe berries (blackthorn, prunus spinosa)in a dry anise flavored alcohol with other herbs and spices.Sloe Gin is made by macerating sloe berries in gin. Here are two recipes from "Wine Making & Home Brewing" S. Beedell (1970):
Sloe Gin 1
Sloe Gin 2
I have a Ukrainian recipe .. for a 'Ternivka' or Sloe Vodka. It relies on wild yeasts to weakly ferment the sloes.
Ternivka (Sloe Vodka)
Fill a large jar with ripe sloe (blackthorn) berries that have been pricked in several places. Sprinkle with sugar. Cover neck and let it stand in the sun for 6 weeks. When fermentation has ceased add to every 10 kg (20 lb) of berries 500 ml (1 pt) of vodka. Let it stand for several months. Strain. Add more vodka (quantity not given, but going by sloe gin recipe it could be up to 10 litres or 20 pts).
The English make a Plum Gin from Damson plums, which are related to the French Mirabelle plum, from which the well-known eau-de-vie de Mirabelle is made. Here are two recipes for Damson Gin from "Winemaking and Home Brewing", S. Beedell (1970).
Damson Gin (Fortified) 1
Damson Gin (Fortified) 2
Pacharan is a Spanish liqueur.
Variations of the above exist. The use of sloe beries is reminiscent of English sloe gin.
Baker quotes from "The Alcohol Textbook" by Jacques,Lyons & Kelsall :
The BATF definition of gin is a product obtained by original distillation from mash, or by redistillation of distilled spirits, or by mixing neutral spirits with or over juniper berries and other aromatics, or with or over other extracts derived from infusions, percolations, or maceration of such materials, and includes mixtures of gin and neutral spirits. It shall derive its main characteristic flavor from juniper berries and be bottled at not less that 80 proof (40 %). Gin produced exclusively by original distillation or redistillation may be further designated as distilled. The regulation also states that dry gin (London dry gin), Geneva gin (Holland's gin) and Old Tom gin (Tom gin) are types of gin known under such designations.
This regulation means that gin may be produced by
1) distilling spirit with juniper berries and other botanicals, or
2) mixing spirit with a distilled gin concentrate, or
3) mixing spirit with a blend of essences of juniper and other flavorings.
The spirit used in gin production is usually neutral, but in the production of Geneva gin, which is popular in the Netherlands and Quebec, it is a heavily flavored distillate referred to as malt wine.
Distilled gin is normally produced in batch operations using pot stills. The pot still is usually filled with neutral spirit diluted to 45-60 %, and then the juniper berries and other botanicals are added. The berries and botanicals may be added directly to the spirit either in loose form or contained in a cotton sack. Alternatively, the mixed botanicals may be suspended above the liquid surface either in a cotton sack or in a wire mesh rack. In the gin distilling process the pot still is heated by steam indirectly through a calandria in the bottom of the pot.
The distillate coming over in the first few minutes of flow is normally discarded as heads for reprocessing. The main bulk of the distillate is then taken as product, and the final portion distilling below a predetermined proof (of about 45 oGL) is discarded as tails for reprocessing. The pot still product is then sent to the bottling department for dilution and bottling. There is usually no storage or blending of different gin batches.
In the preparation of gin concentrate the distillation process is much the same as for distilled gin, but a much greater quantity of botanicals is added in the pot still. The gin concentrate is then simply blended with neutral spirit prior to bottling. Gin essences are prepared by blending essential oils and other extracts derived from juniper berries and botanicals. With the introduction of highly concentrated gin essences, it is possible to use as little as 0.01% by volume of the essence in a blend with neutral spirit.
Some internationally known brands of gin are produced by all three methods (i.e. distilling, concentrate blending, and essence blending) indifferent countries without appreciable variance in taste and odor when normal quality control procedures are used.
The quality and type of juniper berries and the mix of other botanicals largely determines the nature of the end product. For example, the flavor of London dry gin is strongly influenced by large amounts of coriander seeds in the botanical mix. Simpson (1966; 1977) and Clutton(1979) have listed several botanicals commonly used in gin production (Table 2). Another frequently used botanical is the chamomile flower (Chamaemelum nobile).
Table 2. Botanicals used in production of gin.1
Common name Botanical name
Juniper berries Juniperis communis
Coriander seed Coriandrum sativum
Liquorice root Glycyrrhiza spp.
Fennel seed Foeniculum vulgare
Cubeb berries Piper cubeb
Cinnamon bark Cinnamonum zeylanicum
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans
Aniseed Pimpinella anisum
Grains of paradise Afromomum melegueta
Cassia bark Cinnamomum cassia
Sweet orange peel Citrus sinensis
Bitter orange peel Citrus aurantium
Cardamom seeds Elettaria cardamomum
Angelica root Archangelica officinalis
Lemon peel Citrus limon
Orris root Iris pallida
Callamus root Acorus calamus
Caraway seed Corum carvi
Adapted from Simpson (1966, 1977) and Clutton(1979).
As with vodka, great care should be taken in handling and bottling gin. Unlike vodka, however, the problem is not picking up flavors from other products. The risk is contamination of other products with gin. If it is not possible to use a dedicated set of tanks and bottling equipment, everything coming in contact with gin should be thoroughly washed before use on any other beverage.