Info on rye

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Info on rye

Postby Tater » Thu Apr 02, 2009 2:11 pm

http://www.answers.com/topic/rye-1 Ads by Google Dictionary Definition Perennial Rye Grass Winter Wheat Ryegrass Seed

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rye

Dictionary: rye1 (rī) pronunciation
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Home > Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary
n.

1. A cereal grass (Secale cereale) widely cultivated for its grain.
2. The grain of this plant, used in making flour and whiskey and for livestock feed.
3. Whiskey made from the grains of this plant.

[Middle English, from Old English ryge.]

rye2 (rī) pronunciation
n.

A Gypsy man.

[Romany rai, from Sanskrit rājā, king. See rajah.]

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Sci-Tech Encyclopedia: Rye
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A winter-hardy and drought-resistant cereal plant, Secale cereale, in the grass family (Graminae). It resembles wheat, with which it intercrosses to a limited extent. Rye is propagated almost completely by cross-pollination. The inflorescence is a spike or ear (see illustration). Spikelets are arranged flatwise against a zigzag rachis; they usually have two flowers, enclosed by a lemma and palea with two adjacent glumes. The young florets contain three stamens and a pistil. The fertilized pistil develops into a naked grain, or kernel, that is easily threshed. There are several recognized species of Secale, most of which have shattering spikes and small kernels. There are both perennial and winter-annual species of rye, with winter forms being favored over spring types for production. The only commercially cultivated species is the nonshattering S. cereale. See also Cyperales; Grass crops; Wheat.

Rye spikes or ears.
Rye spikes or ears.

Rye is more important in Europe and Asia than in the Western Hemisphere. Russia is the leading world producer, followed by Poland and Germany. Canada and Argentina produce significant amounts, and Switzerland and northwest Europe have high yields. Rye production in the United States is mostly in South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Georgia.

Rye grain is used for animal feed, human food, and production of spirits. Ground rye is mixed with other feeds for livestock. It is often fall-sown to provide soil cover and pasturage for livestock. Egg yolks of chickens and butter from cows fed on rye have a rich yellow color. See also Distilled spirits.

Compared to other small grains, rye has a fewer number of cultivars (agricultural varieties). Short-strawed types are gaining favor. Plant and kernel characteristics of rye are variable, partly because of cross-pollination. Height may range from 4 to 6 ft (120 to 180 cm) under moderately fertile conditions. Kernel color may be amber, gray, green, blue, brown, or black.

Tetraploid forms, whose chromosome number has been doubled, are available. Tetraploid wheat and rye have been hybridized and chromosomes doubled to form Triticales, which is increasing in usage. See also Breeding (plant); Grain crops.

Rye grain is milled into flour in a manner similar to that used for wheat flour. Variations are made based on the compositional and structural differences between these grains. Rye bread production requires blending of rye flours with wheat flours to provide sufficient dough strength. Specialty varieties of rye breads are classified according to ethnic origins or as sweet or sour doughs. Sour rye breads may be developed from natural lactic fermentations or through the incorporation of cultured milk. Swedish rye crisp breads are generally prepared from whole ground meal. See also Food engineering.
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Food and Nutrition: rye
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Grain of Secale cereale, the predominant cereal in some parts of Europe; very hardy and withstands adverse conditions better than wheat. Rye flour is dark and the dough lacks elasticity; rye bread is usually made with sour dough rather than yeast. See also bread, rye; crispbreads; ergot; ergotism; pumpernickel.
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Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: rye
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Cereal grass (Secale cereale) and its edible grain, used to make rye bread and rye whiskey, as livestock feed, and as a pasture plant. Native to South Asia, today it is grown extensively in Europe, Asia, and North America. It is planted mainly where climate and soil are relatively unfavourable for other cereals and as a winter crop where temperatures are too cold for winter wheat. Rye thrives at high altitudes and is the most winter-hardy of all small grains. It is high in carbohydrates and provides small quantities of protein, potassium, and B vitamins. Only rye and wheat have the necessary qualities to make a loaf of bread, but rye lacks the elasticity of wheat and thus is frequently blended with wheat flour. The tough fibrous straw of rye is used for animal bedding, thatching, mattresses, hats, and paper. Rye may be grown as a green manure crop.

For more information on rye, visit Britannica.com.

Archaeology Dictionary: rye
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[Sp]

A group of cereals of the genus Secale which occur in wild form in the Near East. Cultivated rye (Secale cereale) has been recognized in Anatolia from the 7th millennium bc, but it only became common in central and northern Europe from the Iron Age onwards.

Columbia Encyclopedia: rye
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rye, cereal grain of the family Gramineae (grass family). The grain, Secale cereale, is important chiefly in Central and N Europe. It seems to have been domesticated later than wheat and other staple grains; cultivated rye is quite similar to the wild forms and no traces of it have been found among Egyptian ruins or Swiss lake dwellings. Where it grows well, wheat is preferred, but rye will produce a good crop on soil too poor or in a climate too cool to produce a good crop of wheat. The standard schwarzbrot, or pumpernickel, of Europe was formerly the major rye product. A bread of lighter color, called rye bread, is made of rye flour mixed with wheat flour. Today rye is used mostly as a stock feed (usually mixed with other grains), for hay and pasturage, for green manure, and as a cover crop. Russia leads in world production. Rye is much used as a distillers' grain in making whisky and gin. The tough straw of rye is valued for many purposes, e.g., thatching for roofs and stuffing for horse collars. Ergot is a fungus disease of rye; the fungus is poisonous and may make the rye unsafe to use. Wild rye and lyme grass are names for several grasses of the genus Elymus, some of which are occasionally planted as ornamentals or used for binding sand. Rye is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Liliatae, order Cyperales, family Gramineae.


Veterinary Dictionary: rye
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The cereal plant Secale cereale, and its nutritious seed. May be infected with claviceps purpurea and cause poisoning.

* r. ergot — see rye ergot.


Word Tutor: rye
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pronunciation

IN BRIEF: n. - Hardy annual cereal grass widely cultivated in northern Europe; The seed of the cereal grass.

pronunciation On a world wide basis rye is one of the grain crops that provide two thirds of the energy and half the protein of the diet.


Wikipedia: Rye
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For other uses, see Rye (disambiguation).
Rye

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Secale
Species: S. cereale
Binomial name
Secale cereale
M.Bieb.

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskies, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats.

Rye is a cereal and should not be confused with ryegrass which is used for lawns, pasture, and hay for livestock.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
* 2 Agronomy
* 3 Production and consumption statistics
* 4 Diseases
* 5 Uses
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links

History

Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey, and adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in Turkey, such as PPNB Can Hasan III, but is otherwise virtually absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800-1500 BC.[1] It is possible that rye traveled west from Turkey as a minor admixture in wheat, and was only later cultivated in its own right. Although archeological evidence of this grain has been found in Roman contexts along the Rhine Danube and in the British Isles, Pliny the Elder is dismissive of rye, writing that it "is a very poor food and only serves to avert starvation" and wheat is mixed into it "to mitigate its bitter taste, and even then is most unpleasant to the stomach" (N.H. 18.40).

Since the Middle Ages, rye has been widely cultivated in Central and Eastern Europe and is the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary.

Claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria, remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates, and identifications based solely on grain, rather than on chaff.

Agronomy
wild rye

Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide ground cover for the winter. It actually grows during any warmer days of the winter, when sunlight temporarily brings the plant to above freezing, even while there is still general snow cover. It can be used to prevent the growth of winter-hardy weeds, and can either be harvested as a bonus crop, or tilled directly into the ground in spring to provide more organic matter for the next summer's crop. It is sometimes used in winter gardens and is a very common nurse crop.

The flame moth, rustic shoulder-knot and turnip moth are among the species of Lepidoptera whose larvae feed on rye.

Production and consumption statistics
Top Ten Rye Producers — 2005
(million metric ton)
Russia 3.6
Poland 3.4
Germany 2.8
Belarus 1.2
Ukraine 1.1
China 0.6
Canada 0.4
Turkey 0.3
United States 0.2
Austria 0.2
World Total 13.3
Source: FAO [2]
Minerals
Ca 33 mg
Fe 2,67 mg
Mg 121 mg
P 374 mg
K 264 mg
Na 6 mg
Zn 3,73 mg
Cu 0,450 mg
Mg 2,680 mg
Se 0,035 mg

Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is also grown in North America (Canada and the USA), in South America (Argentina), in Turkey, in Kazakstan and in northern China.

Production levels of rye are falling in most of the producing nations due to falling demand. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million tons in 1992 to just 3.4 Mt in 2005. Corresponding figures for other countries are as follows: Poland - 5.9 Mt in 1992 and 3.4 Mt in 2005; Germany - 3.3 Mt & 2.8 Mt; Belarus - 3.1 Mt & 1.2 Mt; China - 1.7 Mt & 0.6 Mt; Kazakhstan - 0.6 Mt & 0.02 Mt.

Most of rye is consumed locally, and is exported only to neighbouring countries, but not worldwide.

Diseases
Main article: List of rye diseases

Rye is highly susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause both physical and mental harm, including convulsions, miscarriage, necrosis of digits, and hallucinations. Historically, damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to periodic epidemics of this condition. There have been "occurrence[s] of ergotism with periods where there were high incidents of people persecuted for being witches. Emphasis was placed on the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692, where there was a sudden rise in the number of people accused of being witches, but earlier examples were taken from Europe, as well."[3]

Uses
Rye output in 2005
A rye field in Russia, as depicted by Ivan Shishkin in 1878.

Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is a widely eaten food in Northern and Eastern Europe. Rye is also used to make the familiar crisp bread. Rye flour has a lower gluten content than wheat flour, and contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber.

Some other uses of rye include rye whiskey and use as an alternative medicine in a liquid form, known as rye extract. Often marketed as Oralmat, rye extract is a liquid obtained from rye and similar to that extracted from wheatgrass. Its benefits are said to include a strengthened immune system, increased energy levels and relief from allergies, but there is no clinical evidence for its efficacy. Rye seems also active in the prevention of prostate cancer.[4]

Rye straw is used to make corn dollies.

See also

* Ergot and ergotism
* Rye beer
* Rye whisky
* Pumpernickel

References

1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 75
2. ^ Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers - Countries By Commodity
3. ^ Ergot of Rye: History
4. ^ E Pukkala, N Gustavsson and L Teppo, Atlas of cancer incidence in Finland, Cancer Society of Finland, Helsinki (1987), p. 37. and P Kleemola, M Virtanen and P Pietinen, Dietary survey of Finnish adults, Publications of the National Public Health Institute B2, Helsinki (1994)

* Secale cereale (TSN 42089). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on September 22, 2002.
* Multilingual taxonomic information from the University of Melbourne

External links
Sister project Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Secale cereale

* Gordon Hillmann: New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates, in: The Holocene 11/4 (July 2001), p. 383-393.
* Growing Rye hosted by the UNT Government Documents Department
* Rye recipes

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Tater
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Re: Info on rye

Postby 1fourme » Fri Apr 03, 2009 9:35 pm

Some other uses of rye include rye whiskey and use as an alternative medicine in a liquid form, known as rye extract. Often marketed as Oralmat, rye extract is a liquid obtained from rye and similar to that extracted from wheatgrass. Its benefits are said to include a strengthened immune system, increased energy levels and relief from allergies, but there is no clinical evidence for its efficacy. Rye seems also active in the prevention of prostate cancer.[4]

Tater,
Thanks for posting, lots of good info.
I was reading a old book, and it stated they used to add 1-2 drops of rye extract per quart.
Has anybody tried the "Oralmat"? I have searched everywhere and it seems that Oralmat is the only type of rye extract made.
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Re: Info on rye

Postby mupfo » Tue Nov 24, 2009 8:55 pm

Thanks tater not only will it get you drunk it prevents prostate cancer...
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Re: Info on rye

Postby BoomTown » Wed Apr 02, 2014 8:18 am

Tator,

I'm considering buying some of this Rye (http://shop.honeyville.com/rye-flakes-50lb.html), which has been steam rolled.

In your experience, will it having been steam rolled impact the mashing value of this as a grain?

Boom
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Re: Info on rye

Postby WestCoast » Fri Apr 04, 2014 6:22 pm

For a few extra bones you could go with malted rye, and not have to worry about it.
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Re: Info on rye

Postby BoomTown » Wed Apr 16, 2014 3:22 am

BoomTown wrote:Tator,

I'm considering buying some of this Rye (http://shop.honeyville.com/rye-flakes-50lb.html), which has been steam rolled.

In your experience, will it having been steam rolled impact the mashing value of this as a grain?

Boom


Well, I bought 25 lbs of this, and made my first mash with it last weekend. Mash is 4 lbs of corn, 2 lobs rye, 2 lbs of oaks, 2 lbs of 6-row malted barley. Gellalization seemed to go a bit smoother than when I was using wheat for that portion of the recipe. Smells good at three days in, taste is a bit sharp. I didn't put the rye through the mill, hoping the the steam/roll part of the pre processing allows the starches to come out but keeps the grain firm enough to make sparging easy...used steam rolled oats too.

Will set it to age in a Gibbs barrel of #3 char, at about 130 proof.

Looking to make a full bodied whiskey, with a caramel back taste balanced with a spicy finish.

Will know more by Easter 2015.

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Re: Info on rye

Postby BoomTown » Mon May 05, 2014 11:08 am

About those flaked rye grains...am using them in 4th cycle now, and they are fun to work with. They seem to keep the corn from becoming to set up during the cooking process, and are relatively easy to work with in the compressing/wringing out phase. Even smells good, better than the wheat berries I was using before.

Just got the first batch through the still, and am going to put the hearts aside, and add Oak child to it, and see what comes out now.

Have to admit, I'm getting a little excited...this tastes pretty good as White Dog, and I'm hoping it excels as an 'oak aged' whiskey.

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Re: Info on rye

Postby sounder_4 » Thu May 15, 2014 8:17 am

Rye has a connection to the psychoactive drug Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), which was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann of Sandoz Labs in Basil Switzerland in 1938 from ergotamine, a chemical derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye.
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