Chemical & Ingredient Chart

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Chemical & Ingredient Chart
Chemical / Ingredient Usage Recommended concentration Comments
Acid Blend (Tartaric, malic, citric) 3:2:1 Increase total acidity 1g/L Increase TA by 1 g/L
Ascorbic acid Anti-oxidant 2-3 g/hL Only to be used with Sulfite
Bentonite Fining white and red wines Fining sparkling wines 25-100 g/hL 25-50 g/hL Dissolve in water
Bio-Clean Clean equipment 15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of warm water N/A
Bio-San Sanitize equipment 15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of hot water N/A
Casein Fining white wines and improve colour in white wines 50-100 g/hL Dissolve in water
Chlorinated cleaner (pink powder) Clean and sanitize equipment 5 mL (1 tsp) per 4 L of water Should not be used on plastic equipment or oak barrels
Citric acid Increase effectiveness of sulphite solution for sanitizing equipment 45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of water Dissolve in warm water
Copper sulphate Reduce hydrogen sulphide 4 drops/hL using a 1% solution Removes rotten egg smell
Dextrose or sucrose Increase potential alcohol level 17 g/L Increase potential alcohol level by 1.0%
Egg whites Fining red wines 5-10 g/hL Combine with a salted water solution
Gelatin Fining red wines 1-5 g/hL (increase up to 25 g/hL for high-pectin wines) Dissolve in water
Grape tannins Increase tannin content 10-30 g/hL (increase to 50 g/hL when fining high-pectin wines with gelatin) Dissolve in warm water
Hydrogen peroxide Reduce free SO2 content 50 g/hL (using a 1% solution) Reduce free SO2 content by 10 mg/L
Isinglass Fining white wines Liquid: 1 mL/L Powder: 1-3 g/hL Liquid: dilute in wine Powder: dissolve in water
Kieselsol Fining white and red wines 25-50 mL/hL N/A
Metatartaric acid Prevent precipitation of tartrate crystals Up to 10g/hL Dissolve in water
Oak chips Add oak aroma to wines Whites: 1-2 g/L Reds: 2-4 g/L Adds oak aroma to wines
Oak extract (10% solution) Add oak aroma to wines Whites: 2 mL/LReds: 4 mL/L Adds oak aroma to wines
Pectic enzymes Fining wines Whites: 1-2 g/hL Reds: 2-4 g/hL Dissolve in water
Phosphoric acid Reduce pH in high-TA wines 1 or 2 drops of 30% solution/L N/A
Potassium bicarbonate Reduce total acidity 1-2 g/L Reduce TA by 1 g/L
Potassium metabisulphite A. Crushing of grapes B. Must preparation (concentrated, sterilized, and fresh juices) C. Stabilization D. Bottling A. 100 mg/L B. 50 mg/L C. 50 mg/L D. 50 mg/L A. Decrease to 5-10 mg/L of must for MLF. Dissolve in warm water B, C, and D. Dissolve in warm water
Potassium sorbate Prevent re-fermentation of bottled wines 10-20 g/hL Do not use in ML-fermented wines
Sodium carbonate (soda ash) Clean plastic equipment 8-12 g/L of water Dissolve in hot water
Sodium percarbonate Treat oak barrel spoilage problems 1-3 g/L of water Dissolve in hot water
Sodium metabisulphite Sanitize equipment 45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of water Dissolve in warm water
Sparkolloid® Fining white and red wines 10-40 g/hL Dissolve in water
Sweetener-conditioner Sweeten a finished wine 12-25 mL/L of wine Prevent renewed fermentation
Tannisol Preserve/stabilize wine 1-3 tablets per hL N/A
Tartaric acid Increase total acidity or reduce pH 1-2 g/L Increase TA by 1 g/L or reduce pH by 0.1 unit
Yeast (active dried) Alcoholic fermentation 5 g for 4.5 to 23 L of must add to must
Yeast nutrients (diammonium phosphate) Enhance fermentation capability of yeast 10-20 g/hL Dissolve in warm water