Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

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Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Brendan » Fri Feb 28, 2014 6:00 am

Here is another thread that i've decided to migrate across...I know there is already a similar thread in the new distiller reading lounge, but I wrote this up a bit over a year ago and think it might be a bit clearer and easier for the novice to get a feel for what's going on. Hope you enjoy :thumbup:

We can generally break down still types into 2 categories: The pot still, and a reflux still.

Pot Still

The general pot still consists of a column sitting on top of the boiler. The vapour rises from the boiler and up through the column, reaching the neck at the top of the column, and follows this path down into the product condenser. The only way to control a pot still is by the amount of heat you put into the boiler, whether it be through power or gas. All vapour that reaches the top of the column is condensed and collected (assuming the condenser is adequate).

For illustrative purpose, the following legend applies to diagrams in this thread:
Legend.jpg
Legend.jpg (9.42 KiB) Viewed 34950 times
Pot_uploadpng.png

Reflux Stills

A reflux still, has an additional condenser sitting usually on top of the column (although there are various offset designs, we will ignore these here for simplicity just to demonstrate the basic principles). When the rising vapour reaches this condenser, most if not all of the vapour will condense and fall back down the column (depending on the coolant water flow in the condenser). This process is known as reflux.

Reflux stills are generally referred to in 3 different categories, being LM, VM, & CM.

These anagrams stand for Liquid Management, Vapour Management, and Cooling Management, and refer to the way in which the output collection is managed. In other words, the process which is used to control what, when, and how fast you collect from the output.

Although there are several variations in each category, we will only look at one example for each to avoid over complicating the topic with every still ever designed, and to assist in educating on the meanings of these terms. This way, when you see a still which you haven’t come across before, you can use what you have learnt to determine for yourself which category it belongs in.


Liquid Management

As the name suggests, the output is determined by controlling the amount of the actual liquid distillate which is allowed to exit. This is usually achieved by use of a needle valve. A very common example of this type of still is the Boka (or Bokakob, named after it’s inventor).

The column contains two slant plates (pieces of copper), which are soldered in on an angle. As the vapour rises up through the column, it reaches the reflux condenser, condenses into liquid and falls down the column. Some of this falling distillate catches on the top plate which is slanted at a downward angle, and falls down onto the first plate due to the overlap of plates. It is then caught by the second slanted plate on the opposing side which is angled upwards, and fills that space until it overflows and falls back down the column.

The collection is controlled by a needle valve at the bottom plate, which when opened slightly, lets a small amount of the liquid distillate drip from the plate which is collected. By keeping this valve closed for the first half hour or so, the column gets itself into a sort of equilibrium, where the continual rising of vapour and falling condensate, refreshes the liquid held by the slant plates and allows higher/lighter alcohols to be held on the plates.

As the needle valve controls the release of the liquid as described, it is termed a Liquid Management style still.
LM_upload2.png

Vapour Management

The Vapour Managed still can come in many various designs, just like the other categories. A common VM design is shown in the picture below. The column contains a reflux condenser sitting at the top of the column (commonly a coil), as well as a tee piece below that, branching out into a second condenser called the product condenser. Off of the tee piece is a valve used to control the flow of vapour. A gate valve is usually used here, although ball valves have been used, the gate valve gives much better control which is important in a VM design.

The vapour rises up the column as normal, where the vapour path splits into two at the tee. The vapour that continues towards the top is condensed by the reflux condenser and falls back down the column as explained previously in the description of reflux. With the gate valve closed, the column continues in this cycle reaching an equilibrium where the alcohol components are separated in the column. Lighter alcohols find their way towards the top of the column, and heavier alcohols settle around the bottom of the column.

Safety: Above the reflux condenser must ALWAYS be open to the atmosphere, so that there is no pressure in the still. Alcohol will not escape out of the top if there is enough coolant flow through the condenser. If the top is sealed...KABOOM! (This applies for both VM & LM, or any still where it is not vented to the atmosphere and can be closed off by a valve).

Usually the user would keep the valve closed for the first say half hour of the run, to allow the column to separate the fractions (lighter and heavier alcohols). At which point, they will ever so slightly open the gate valve to allow a small amount of the vapour through it which will flow through to the product condenser for collection.

As the gate valve controls the release of the vapour as described, it is termed a Vapour Management style still.
VM_upload2.jpg

Cooling Management

The cooling management still will get some extra attention here describing two different examples, but more on that shortly. As the name suggests, the output is controlled by manipulating the coolant water through the reflux condenser. In the other types of reflux stills, a coil is commonly used as the reflux condenser because the aim is to knock the vapour down. However, the reflux condensers in a cooling management still are usually of a different design because at some point, the aim is to let some vapour rise through the reflux condenser...cool hey? Common designs here are a water jacket (larger pipe full of coolant water, flowing around one slightly smaller pipe that carries vapour), and the shotgun condenser (larger diameter pipe carrying coolant water, and several smaller diameter pipes running vertically through it carrying the vapour...appearance like a multi-barrelled shotgun).

The concept behind this design is that the column can be held in full reflux by allowing enough coolant water to flow through the reflux condenser, so that all of the vapour is knocked down (condensed) and falls back down the column as liquid. After the column has again reached an equilibrium, the flow of coolant water to the reflux condenser can be restricted, to a point where a certain percentage of the rising vapour is not condensed by the reflux condenser and continues to rise through it and on to the product condenser where it is collected.
CM_upload3.jpg
edit: Updated CM pic to reflect commonly used design.

As shown in the diagram above, the same coolant water is commonly used for both condensers. The coolant water is split to the two condensers, and the flow to each controlled by individual valves.

Because the coolant water is manipulated to control the output from the still, this becomes a Cooling Management type still.


Packing

Although the aim here is to understand the difference between various types of stills, and how their outputs are controlled, we will briefly discuss column packing here. This is in order to lead into the next section, and for a brief introduction on the interaction between rising vapour and falling liquid distillate. In the previously mentioned reflux stills, the columns are generally packed with a material containing a high surface area which also allows the vapour to pass through it. Most commonly used materials for this purpose are copper mesh rolled up, or stainless steel scrubbers. More on this can be researched further on the forum, but the main purpose of this packing is to give a surface that falling liquid distillate can have contact with, which can then be further boiled by the rising distillate. Leaving a column in full reflux will repeat this process all over the packing material, forcing the lighter alcohols to sit towards the top of the column and the heavier alcohols further down the column. This is the process of separating the wash into its alcohol fractions, and collecting these off slowly is the process of fractional distillation. This process is known to strip all flavour from distillate, so the method is used for making neutrals (vodka).

In order to get a flavoured product (whisky, rum, brandy), minimal or no packing is used (as in a pot still), however a proven setup to achieving great flavour retention is a column which utilises plates at various levels throughout as its ‘packing’. ie. The area where the liquid distillate has contact with rising ethanol vapour. Each plate used provides a cleaner product, and a reasonable column height packed with copper mesh can have an equivalent result of 20 or more plates producing a 95% alcohol by volume output. When distilling a whisky or rum, this is obviously not a desirable result, and a pot still or plated column is used.


Plated Columns/Flutes/Bubblers

A lot of hype lately has been around flutes, and for good reason. The flutes are just scaled down versions of commercial plated columns. These types of distillation columns are renowned for both their flavour retention in the final product, as well as their collection speeds. Without going into anymore about them and what to do with them, which can be researched on the forum, this section will attempt to educate on the basics of how they work.

Two types of plates are commonly used in hobby distiller’s plated columns, and the choice of which to use comes down to personal preference with almost identical results reported. The two common types are perforated plates and bubble caps (although there are a few other designs, ie. valve). On a perforated plate, the plate consists of many small holes (perforated) where vapour can rises up through. On a bubble cap plate, the plate contains either one large, or several small caps with slots cut into them to allow vapour to escape which has travelled up a small tube (riser) through the plate and into the inside of the cap. This explanation will focus on the perforated plate now, however the theory of how they work is identical aside from how the vapour travels through liquid on the plate.

Following the illustration below, here is a brief explanation of what is going on inside...On initial boil up, the vapours begin rising up the column, and as they reach each plate are able to flow through the perforated holes on each plate. Once these vapours reach the top of the column where the reflux condenser is flowing with adequate coolant water, the vapours condense and begin to fall back down the column. Picturing the top plate firstly...as the liquid is falling it will land on the plate, however instead of falling through the holes it is suspended by the vapour rising through the holes which in turn boils the liquid on the plate. The lighter alcohols will boil off of this plate and ascend up the column again as vapour towards the reflux condenser.

As this cycle continues, the depth of liquid on the plate (bath depth) increases to a point where it overflows into a tube going down to the next plate below. This tube is known as a downcomer. The downcomer places this liquid onto the plate, which is boiled by the rising vapour through the holes, and this process continues until all plates are loaded with a bath of boiling liquid. As the system is left in full reflux (all vapour falling back down), the lighter alcohols work their way up through the plates towards the top, while the heavier alcohols and water work their way down lower in the column. At this point in theory, ethanol is boiling off each plate as vapour, while water remains on the plates and flows down the downcomers. The downcomer on the very last plate, ends in some form of a vapour lock, being a J shaped tube, or just a pipe and cup. The idea of this is to allow the liquid overflowing from the bottom plate to return to the boiler, without allowing rising vapour to flow up through the downcomer.

At the point in time where the operator is happy that equilibrium has been reached, the coolant water flow to the reflux condenser is restricted, where a slight amount of the rising vapour will be light enough to make its way through the condenser without turning into liquid. This vapour will then reach the product condenser where it is collected.

As the coolant water is manipulated to control the output from the still, this becomes a Cooling Management still also.
Flute_upload.jpg
Now that you have learnt these, you should be able to apply your knowledge to any further designs that you come across, and determine for yourself the type of management that the still utilises. :thumbup:
Last edited by Brendan on Sat Mar 01, 2014 6:08 am, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Brendan » Fri Feb 28, 2014 6:03 am

There you go guys.

Mods, if there is any feedback or changes that you would like to make, please let me know :D

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by DAD300 » Fri Feb 28, 2014 7:39 am

Nice drawings...
CCVM http://homedistiller.org/forum/viewtopi ... d#p7104768" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;" rel="nofollow
Ethyl Carbamate Docs viewtopic.php?f=6&t=55219&p=7309262&hil ... e#p7309262
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Prairiepiss » Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:02 am

Nice writeup.

I would like to point out. That most cm stills available now don't have the product condenser fed through the same tubes as the reflux condenser. And the more common one now uses a jacketed reflux condenser.

The theories are correct. I just think the one drawing could cornfuse some that are looking at buying the popular cm stills on the market now. A lot of new comers come here after they have already found those available stills in the net. And still wouldn't know what type they are.

Just thinking outloud here.
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Halfbaked » Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:07 am

For some newbees CM, LM, VM might be a little daunting. Pics of each so they can see what is the same and what is different is very helpful. Everyone loves pis. Good write up.

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Bushman » Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:20 am

Thanks for the effort, I also agree with PP on the CM and have just updated the drawing on the new distillers reading lounge to reflect the newer designs on a CM still that makes it a much better performance than before.

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by PhatFil » Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:39 am

Nice one the original write up in the reading room is great too but the diagrams have lost definition on the small scale in the document making it harder to grasp the concepts. here everything is clear..

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Brendan » Fri Feb 28, 2014 2:51 pm

Thanks PP and everyone else, I'll get to work on an updated CM pic :thumbup:

Thanks for the sticky! :D

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Jimbo » Fri Feb 28, 2014 2:56 pm

Why does your condensed distillate flow sideways in all but your CM still? :ebiggrin:

Seriously tho, really nice write up Brendan. Thank you. :thumbup:
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Brendan » Fri Feb 28, 2014 3:05 pm

Jimbo wrote:Why does your condensed distillate flow sideways in all but your CM still? :ebiggrin:

Seriously tho, really nice write up Brendan. Thank you. :thumbup:
Must be that Coriolis effect :wink:

Trying to find the updates you have made Bushman...

edit: Ahh I see...I was referring to BW Redneck's thread, whereas you meant kiwistillers thread. All good, I'll get to work.

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Brendan » Sat Mar 01, 2014 5:43 am

I have updated the CM pic as discussed to represent a more commonly used setup.

I had never even seen kiwistillers thread on reflux stills...only BW Rednecks thread in the reading lounge, which I thought was a tad unclear and hard for the novice to follow and led me to post this.

Hope this is still okay, and someone gets something out of it :thumbup:

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by S-Cackalacky » Sat Mar 01, 2014 5:59 am

Something odd happened with your editing. The "legend" is in the wrong place and the LM and VM pics are now missing.
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by S-Cackalacky » Sat Mar 01, 2014 6:03 am

Now, most pics are there, but in the wrong places. Maybe I should just go away and come back later. You must be doing edits while I'm typing this.
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Brendan » Sat Mar 01, 2014 6:11 am

Jimbo wrote:Why does your condensed distillate flow sideways in all but your CM still? :ebiggrin:
I couldn't handle it Jimbo, didn't even notice until you mentioned it :crazy: ...can't confuse the poor beginners with anti-gravity distillate now can we?!


S-Cackalacky wrote:Now, most pics are there, but in the wrong places. Maybe I should just go away and come back later. You must be doing edits while I'm typing this.
Yep, thank Jimbo for that :lol: All good now.

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by BaxtersDad » Tue Jul 21, 2015 7:30 am

It would be helpful to have drawings of the VM still show the cooling water plumbing. I read another thread that had cooling water in at the inlet to the reflux coil, the outlet of the reflux coil to in inlet (far end) of the product condenser (Liebig condenser) and the water return to the cooling water reservoir at the outlet (top or near end) of the product condenser, with no Ys, Ts or valves. So water is always flowing through both the condensers all the time. Is there some other way to plumb a VM still with a reflux coil and a product condenser?

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Danespirit » Tue Jul 21, 2015 8:12 am

Pat, the "normal setup would be:
Inlet on the "bottom" of the Liebig, out of the top.
From there to the inlet of the refluxcoil (the line that goes all the way down to the lowest point of the RC).
Out of the other end and the to your reservoir.
However i connected my Liebig with a Y on the inlet, splitting the waterflow equal from there.
Just before the refluxcoil i have a valve.
With this option it allows me to reduce the waterflow to the RC, without choking the Liebig.
The Liebig would simply get a little more water, when i make a restriction to the RC via the valve.
Instead of a valve, a even simpler solution would be a clamp (but be careful not to choke the RC completly).

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by InglisHill » Tue Jul 21, 2015 10:58 am

I have a seperate line and a 3/8th needle valve on the RC (4", 9 x 1" internal, 80mm long) and a 3/8th needle valve on the PC (2"over 1" lleiburg 670mm long)

Works well, easy to dial in just right.

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by chickenfeed » Fri Jul 14, 2017 12:35 pm

Ok so in a cm reflux still if i turn off the head its just a pot still but w copper mesh packin can i reflux until the foreshots are gone and them turn the head off to keep flavor in my rum runs? Thats what i have been doing for a while im all stainless so i dont want to give up the copper

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by chickenfeed » Fri Jul 14, 2017 12:39 pm

This is my setupImage

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by still_stirrin » Fri Jul 14, 2017 1:28 pm

chickenfeed wrote:...Sent from my SM-T580 using Tapatalk
http://homedistiller.org/forum/viewtopi ... 7#p7455625
Attention new distillers: Cranky's spoon feed info
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Pikey » Fri Jul 14, 2017 1:34 pm

chickenfeed wrote:Ok so in a cm reflux still if i turn off the head its just a pot still but w copper mesh packin can i reflux until the foreshots are gone and them turn the head off to keep flavor in my rum runs? Thats what i have been doing for a while im all stainless so i dont want to give up the copper

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Yes 8)

Your packing might give a little extra passive reflux, but not enough to worry about :)

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by dukethebeagle120 » Fri Jul 14, 2017 6:29 pm

this is a great thread.
it clarifys alot when talking columns
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Yummyrum » Fri Jul 14, 2017 11:55 pm

chickenfeed wrote:This is my setup
It is a coolant Management ( CM ) ..... for relevants to topic :thumbup:.... for Newbies just reading
Last edited by Yummyrum on Sun Jul 16, 2017 12:56 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Danespirit » Sat Jul 15, 2017 1:01 am

chickenfeed wrote:Ok so in a cm reflux still if i turn off the head its just a pot still but w copper mesh packin can i reflux until the foreshots are gone and them turn the head off to keep flavor in my rum runs? Thats what i have been doing for a while im all stainless so i dont want to give up the copper.
You can do so, but the packing won't be of any use once you run it in pot still mode.
I think you got a few of the readers confused here..
You write about packing, but show us a picture below of a plated column.
Both are CM stills, but that's about it.
By refluxing until the foreshots are gone, I assume you mean concentrating the foreshots and THEN draw them off before the heads....?

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by kimbodious » Sat Jul 15, 2017 2:53 am

Does the CCVM version of a VM merit its own diagram and explanation?
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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Bushman » Sat Jul 15, 2017 4:52 am

kimbodious wrote:Does the CCVM version of a VM merit its own diagram and explanation?
It has it in the glossary.
http://homedistiller.org/forum/viewtopi ... 46&t=58100

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by fizzix » Wed Oct 02, 2019 5:57 am

I am 94% less ignorant of management styles thanks to this post.

Excellent work Brendan (OP).

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by Miket1104 » Mon Dec 09, 2019 4:47 pm

Chickenfeed did you make yours? What set up is that in a reflux category?

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Re: Types of Stills - LM, VM, CM...What do they mean?

Post by still_stirrin » Mon Dec 09, 2019 5:38 pm

Miket1104 wrote:
Mon Dec 09, 2019 4:47 pm
Chickenfeed did you make yours? What set up is that in a reflux category?
Yummyrum wrote:
Fri Jul 14, 2017 11:55 pm
chickenfeed wrote:This is my setup
It is a coolant Management ( CM ) ..... for relevants to topic :thumbup:.... for Newbies just reading
Attention new distillers: Cranky's spoon feed info
My LM/VM & Potstill: My build thread
Enzyme info: SebStar
All about mashing grains: Braukaiser

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